Many immigrants have settled in the city. The Oakland Athletics MLB club won three consecutive World Series championships in 1972, 1973, and 1974, and appeared in another three consecutive World Series from 1988 to 1990, winning their fourth championship in 1989. Council member Larry Reid, also serving as vice-mayor, was elected to a fifth term in November 2012.[158]. 1917. [200] The Oakland City Council reaffirmed the bike plan in 2005, revised it in 2007, and reaffirmed it in 2012. [4] Oakland is a charter city.[21]. In 2011, Oakland was ranked the 10th most walkable city in the United States.[81]. In 1991, the City Hall tower was at 37°48′19″N 122°16′21″W / 37.805302°N 122.272539°W / 37.805302; -122.272539 (NAD83). In 1906, the city's population doubled with refugees made homeless after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. [116], According to 2015 data compiled by the Bay Area Equity Atlas, 91% of low-income households of color were either in neighborhoods that were gentrifying or were at risk of gentrification at the time. [157] Oakland's mayor is limited to two terms. Oakland expanded during the 1920s, as its population expanded with factory workers. [24] In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. Oakland's highest point is near Grizzly Peak Blvd, east of Berkeley, just over 1,760 feet (540 m) above sea level at about 37°52′43″N 122°13′27″W / 37.8786°N 122.2241°W / 37.8786; -122.2241. In 1967, founder Huey Newton allegedly killed Oakland police officer John Frey. "[174] Crime dramatically decreased since the early 1990s but the city has continued to suffer from serious violent crime problems. [147][148], Gertrude Stein wrote about Oakland in her 1937 book Everybody's Autobiography "There is no there there", upon learning that the neighborhood where she lived as a child had been torn down to make way for an industrial park. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 4.27 inches (108 mm) on February 12, 1904. Tensions were also high in Oakland, where at least 7,500 demonstrators took to the streets, destroying property and clashing with security services. cities. Oakland ranked 11th in cities for designers and artists. [40] Also in 1916, the Fageol Motor Company chose East Oakland for their first factory, manufacturing farming tractors from 1918 to 1923. [78] As of 2019, Oakland's per-capita homeless rate is higher than San Francisco and Berkeley. The Black Panthers march in New York City in protest of the trial of co-founder Huey P. Newton in Oakland, California, on July 22, 1968. BART's headquarters was in a building above the Lake Merritt BART station until 2006, when it relocated to the Kaiser Center due to seismic safety concerns. Oakland has 19 miles (31 km) of shoreline,[79] but Radio Beach is the only beach in Oakland. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States. [103] The city's formerly most populous ethnic group, whites, declined from 95.3% in 1940 to 32.5% by 1990, due to a combination of factors, including suburbanization. The city's greater divisions include downtown Oakland and its greater Central Business District, Lake Merritt, East Oakland, North Oakland, West Oakland, and the Oakland Hills. The wettest year was 1940 with 38.65 inches (982 mm) and the driest year was 1910 with 12.02 inches (305 mm). In 2020, the Oakland Panthers of the Indoor Football League will begin play. The Cook Partisan Voting Index of Congressional District 13, which includes Oakland and Berkeley, is D+40, making it the most Democratic congressional district in California and the fourth most Democratic district in the US. Twenty-five people were killed, 150 people were injured, and nearly 4,000 homes destroyed. The city is also home to several major corporations including Kaiser Permanente, Clorox, and Dreyer's ice cream. It is a designated Level I pediatric trauma center and the only independent children's hospital in Northern California. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. [136] Oakland also took the No. Oakland licenses taxi cabs, and has zoned cab stands in its downtown, including a bicycle pedi-cab service. 1960 – HUAC riot, May 13, Students protest House Un-American Activities Committee hearings, 12 injured, 64 arrested, San Francisco, California; 1960 – Newport Jazz Festival Riot, July 2, Newport, Rhode Island; 1960 – El Cajon Boulevard Riot, August 20, San Diego, California; 1960 – Ax Handle Saturday, August 27, Jacksonville, Florida OAKLAND, Calif. - Local community leaders and activists are protesting the death of George Floyd, a black man who died while in police custody in … [71], The city inspected many warehouses and live/work spaces after a fire broke out in the Ghost Ship warehouse, killing 36 people in 2016. Black Panther Party, African American revolutionary party, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. Lake Merritt is surrounded by residential and business districts, including downtown and Grand Lake. With a population of 433,031 as of 2019[update],[19] it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area; its Port of Oakland is the busiest port in the San Francisco Bay, the entirety of Northern California, and the fifth busiest in the United States of America. [118] The Port of Oakland handles 99% of all containerized goods moving through Northern California, representing $41 billion worth of international trade. Approximately 13,000 homes were built in the 3 years between 1921 and 1924,[45] more than during the 13 years between 1907 and 1920. At the time, the GOP was more moderate than it has become in the 21st century, and some members belonged to a progressive tradition across the Northern Tier of states. The mean income for a household was US$77,888 and the mean income for a family was US$90,948. Kennedy. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. moves to stem African American exodus", "Melting Pot Cities and Suburbs: Racial and Ethnic Change in Metro America in the 2000s", "Nation Sees Effects of 'Day Without Immigrants, "2000 Census information on Gay and Lesbian Couples, by Incorporated place Incorporated place, by highest percentage", "Gentrification and Disinvestment 2020 Â» NCRC", "Oakland, S.F. As one of the three major ports on the West Coast of the United States, the Port of Oakland is the largest seaport on San Francisco Bay and the fifth busiest container port in the United States. [191] The Oakland Higher Education Consortium and the City of Oakland's Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA) opened the Oakland Higher Education Center downtown in 2002 to provide "access to multiple higher education service providers within a shared urban facility." [46] Many of the large downtown office buildings, apartment buildings, and single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built during the 1920s; they reflect the architectural styles of the time. From a mutiny following an explosion that killed over 200 African American sailors to Brianna Noble iconically riding her horse through a demonstration against the police killing of George Floyd, Oakland has a history of protest that has led the country in resilience and progress for decades. During the 1960's protests against the Vietnam War took place all across the nation. The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Historically, the city was served by several train companies, which terminated in different terminals. by Oakland (Calif.) Chamber of Commerce. [84] Oakland's climate is typified by the temperate and seasonal Mediterranean climate. [114] In West Oakland, for example, median household income rose from $80,700 to $86,300 between 2010 and 2017, while the percent of population with four-year degrees rose from one-third to nearly one-half, according to the National Community Reinvestment Coalition. The east span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also suffered damage from the quake when a 50-foot (15-m) section of the upper deck collapsed onto the lower deck; the damaged section was repaired within a month of the earthquake. Following the earthquake, this section was rerouted around the perimeter of West Oakland and rebuilt in 1997–2001. These protests were headed under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Jack Weinberg, Brian Turner, Bettina … In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. This in turn was passed on either directly or indirectly to about a dozen others. The Black Lives Matter and related protests for social justice in Oakland, San Francisco, and Marin continue a long tradition of Bay Area protest. Oakland residents have access to the three major airports of the San Francisco Bay Area: Oakland International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, and San Jose International Airport. In 1960, Kaiser Corporation erected its headquarters at the former site of Holy Names University, at the corner of 20th and Harrison Streets. Until 2000, it was the Summit Medical Center before merging with Berkeley-based Alta Bates. 1917 promotional photograph of a day's output at the Chevrolet factory", "Highway Nostalgia. [85] Rainfall near the bayfront is only 23 inches (580 mm), but is higher in the Oakland Hills to the east (up to 30 inches [760 mm]). ... and the Oakland Tribune. In the 1960s, the majority of voters began to favor liberal policies and the Democratic Party. The higher rainfall in the hills supports woods of oak, madrona, pine, fir and a few redwood groves in the wetter areas. [34] Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever. Oakland, California, 1916–1938", "Photo collection: 'New or greatly enlarged industrial establishments of Oakland and East Bay cities.' [121] These jobs range from minimum wage hourly positions to Transportation Storage and Distribution Managers who earn an annual average salary of US$91,520. In general, the city features warm, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. [20] An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, and incorporation was later approved on March 25, 1854, which officially made Oakland a city. [162][163] Oakland has the second highest percentage of registered Democrats of any of the incorporated cities in Alameda County, with Berkeley coming in first. It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, shipyards, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. [212] Some examples include Lifelong Medical Care, Asian Health Services, and Roots Community Health Center. In fact, on May 2, 1967, a group of 30 Black Panthers walked into the California state Capitol building, toting rifles and shotguns and quickly garnering national headlines. In 2008, homicides were concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, although these districts have 44% of Oakland's residents. The Roots began play in 2019 in a new third division professional league called National Independent Soccer Association, however, the team announced that it would move to the second division and play in the USL Championship from the 2021 season onwards. The Tribune Tower, which features a large clock, is an Oakland landmark. 0.7% of the population is homeless. [143] The city is a renowned culinary hotbed, offering both a wide variety and innovative approaches to diverse cuisines in restaurants and markets, often featuring locally grown produce and international styles such as French, Italian, Portuguese/Spanish, Ethiopian, Asian, Latin American, as well as Caribbean, Southern United States/Louisiana Creole, etc., all of which reflects the culinary traditions of the city's ethnically diverse population. [52], In 1946, National City Lines (NCL), a General Motors holding company, acquired 64% of Key System stock; during the next several years NCL engaged in the conspiratorial dissolution of Oakland's electric streetcar system. [168] The city's strategic plan recommended 925 officers, and an independent study commissioned by the city in the mid-1990s recommended 1,200 officers. [206] Oakland requires these operators to educate users on the correct and safe use of scooters, to distribute the scooters equitably throughout the city, to ensure accessibility, and to provide insurance and indemnification.[207]. The late 1960s and early ’70s were a period of intense innovation in poster design, from psychedelic music posters to political protest posters. [127][128], As of 2013[update], the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward metropolitan area has a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$360.4 billion, ranking eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States. • Student riots in Mexico City subdued by Mexican security forces. The largest canneries were in the Fruitvale District, and included the Josiah Lusk Canning Company, the Oakland Preserving Company (which started the Del Monte brand), and the California Packing Company. [117], Oakland is a major West Coast port, and the fifth busiest in the United States by cargo volume. Civil Rights protest at the Oakland Tribune - 1964 By the early '60s Oakland was one of the most diverse cities in America, following a mass influx of Black American men from the South in … Children's Hospital Oakland is the primary medical center specializing in pediatrics in the East Bay. ", Investigation reveals East Bay city paying out extraordinary police abuse settlements, "Wall Street protesters: We're in for the long haul", "#OccupyWallSt, Then #OccupyKSt, Then #OccupyMainSt", "Update: Fire Chief Defends Response To Deadly Ghost Ship Fire", "Oakland becomes 2nd U.S. city to decriminalize magic mushrooms", "How a trip on magic mushrooms helped decriminalize psychedelic plants in a California city", "Homeless Mothers Are Removed From an Oakland House", "Sheriff's deputies with guns drawn evict homeless moms from Oakland home", "Homeless mothers with Oakland's 'Moms 4 Housing' have been forcibly evicted from a vacant home they were occupying", "Moms 4 Housing: Deal reached to negotiate sale of West Oakland house to nonprofit", "Modeling surface creep on the Hayward fault using rate-and-state friction", "S.F., Oakland in top 10 most walkable U.S. cities", "Oakland, California â€“ Climate Summary", "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA – Oakland city", "California – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990", "B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE – Oakland city, California – 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates", "New measure ranks San Francisco the 'smartest' U.S. city", "The Top 10 Most Diverse Cities in America", "Most & Least Ethnically Diverse Cities in the U.S.", "Oakland's black experience still inherent to city", "Oakland city, California—Fact Sheet—American FactFinder", "News Analysis / In Oakland, Jerry Brown Finds All Politics Is Local / Mayoral front-runner hits the streets", "S.F. Oakland currently has professional teams in three sports: baseball, soccer, indoor football. [165], A 2014 study by the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law & Social Policy at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law examined crime in the city from 1987 to 2012 and concluded that "The story of crime in Oakland over the last 25 years is a nuanced one, as there are both positive and negative aspects of the crime trends. [22] Its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. However, a common feature was that the different railroads continued one more stop to a station at Oakland Pier. Catholic schools in Oakland are operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oakland also include eight K–8 schools (plus one in Piedmont on the Oakland city border). The population was spread out, with 83,120 people (21.3%) under the age of 18, 36,272 people (9.3%) aged 18 to 24, 129,139 people (33.1%) aged 25 to 44, 98,634 people (25.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 43,559 people (11.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. Oakland is also part of Alameda County, for which the Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, and the Charter of the County of Alameda. Oakland has consistently ranked as one of the most ethnically diverse major cities in the country. [174] There were 723 officers at the end of 2015. Tens of thousands of laborers came from around the country, especially poor whites and blacks from the Deep South: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, as well as Missouri and Tennessee. [181][182][183][184], The Oakland Unified School District (OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield Village, operates most of Oakland's public schools. Oaklanders refer to their city's terrain as "the flatlands" and "the hills". [164] Oakland is widely regarded as being one of the most liberal major cities in the nation. The Raiders left Oakland for Los Angeles in 1982, where they won a third Super Bowl championship and returned to Oakland in 1995. In November 2019, two homeless mothers and their children moved into a vacant three bedroom house in West Oakland. [9] In the United States House of Representatives, Oakland is in California's 13th congressional district, represented by Democrat Barbara Lee.[10]. Oakland has many parks and recreation centers which total 5,937 acres (2,403 ha). There are no term limits for the city council. With the loss of life and an estimated economic loss of US$1.5 billion, this was the worst urban firestorm in American history, until 2017. In addition, the city is served by various AM and FM radio stations as well; AM stations KKSF 910, KMKY 1310 and KNEW 960 are licensed to Oakland. 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