Usage Requirements. Because of its ease of planting, generally high planting survival and favorable response to plantation culture it has been widely planted throughout much of the eastern United States and Canada. Szmidt, A. E., & Wang, X-R. (1993). French Blue Scotch Pine (hindu pan) is an evergreen tree with a strong central leader and a more or less rounded form. Description:Scotch or Scots pine is an introduced species which has been widely planted for the purpose of producing Christmas trees. Forest stands containing Scotch pine are managed to produce pulpwood, poles, and sawlogs from which dimension and finish lumber is produced. [3][35] Scots pines may be killed by the pine wood nematode, which causes pine wilt disease. For several years it was the favorite species of large eastern wholesale growers because of its excellent harvesting and shipping qualities. Despite this wide distribution, the Scots pine forests in Scotland are unique and distinct from those elsewhere because of the absence of any other native conifers. The Scotch Pine is a lovely pine widely used throughout North America as a landscape pine and as a commercially grown Christmas tree. Another name, although less common, is European redwood. Height: 40-50 feet (12-15 meters) Spread: 25-30 feet (7.6-9 meters) [31] It is listed as an invasive species in some areas there, including Ontario,[32] Michigan[33] and Wisconsin. It is a popular Christmas tree because of its form and ability to hold onto its needles for a long time. It remains popular for that usage, though it has been eclipsed in popularity, by such species as Fraser fir, Douglas-fir, and others. The species is also valued as an ornamental and landscape plant and has been widely planted in parks and gardens. [14], The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches. From the British isles and Scandinavian peninsulas through central Europe south to the Mediterranean and east through eastern Siberia, Scotch pine can be found at varying elevations.Scotch pine was introduced to North America by European settlers and has long been cultivated, especially in the eastern United States and Canada. Range:Scotch pine is native to Europe and Asia. Despite its invasiveness in parts of eastern North America, Scots pine does not often grow well there, partly due to climate and soil differences between its native habitat and that of North America, and partly due to damage by pests and diseases; the tree often grows in a twisted, haphazard manner if not tended to (as they are in the Christmas tree trade). On vigorous young trees the leaves can be twice as long, and occasionally occur in fascicles of three or four on the tips of strong shoots. Uses:In Europe and throughout several countries in Asia, Scotch pine is an important species of high economic value. "Scotch pine[10]" is another variant of the common name, used mostly in North America.[11]. Like all natural trees it is readily recyclable and has many different uses following the Christmas holidays. Native Scots pine at Crow Wood, Peeblesshire, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 00:04. Trees in the far north of the range were formerly sometimes treated as var. [15][17] The pine has also been used as a source of rosin and turpentine. The timber from it is also called red deal or yellow deal, the name "deal" being adopted from the dimensional format term for a plank. A common Christmas tree in the U.S., the scotch pine has an excellent survival rate, is easy to replant, has great keepability and will remain fresh throughout the holiday season. Carlisle, A., & Brown, A. H. F. (1968). It has excellent needle retention characteristics and holds up well throughout harvest, shipping and display. Distribution in Scotland. Orange- brown peeling bark. Golden Scotch Pine is an evergreen tree with a strong central leader and a more or less rounded form. When displayed in a water filled container it will remain fresh for the normal 3 to 4 week Christmas season. The bark of upper branches on larger, more mature trees displays a prominent reddish-orange color which is very distinctive and attractive. Leaf persistence varies from two to four years in warmer climates, and up to nine years in subarctic regions. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. - scotch pine tree stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Tree-Mendous: This 4-metre Scotch pine tree requires six hands to transport it. General Description A medium to large tree, typically pyramidal when young, becoming more rounded and open with age. [2][3][4][15], The shoots are light brown, with a spirally arranged scale-like pattern. Scots pine is the tree species that has long defined the Michigan Christmas tree and is still a favorite for traditionalists. Images by Boulder Tree Care. They are variable in length, ranging from slightly over 1-inch for some varieties to nearly 3-inches for others. Seedling with flatter, unpaired juvenile leaves, Looking up into the branch structure of a P. sylvestris tree, "Baltic Pine" redirects here. Propagation:Scotch pine is reproduced from seed. It has a dry density around 470 kg/m3 (varying with growth conditions), an open porosity of 60%, a fibre saturation point of 0.25 kg/kg, and a saturation moisture content of 1.60 kg/kg. Scotch Pine is an evergreen tree that develops ornamental bark and a bold, irregular character with age. [25] Pine expanded into Scotland between 8,000 and 8,500 years ago either from an independent refuge, from Scandinavia (via Doggerland) or from Ireland. It can be successfully grown in even poor soils. Cretacea Kalenicz. The needles of Scotch pine are produced in bundles of two. Some active tar producers still exist, but mostly the industry has ceased. How to identify a Scots Pine, one of the more iconic pine species. Scots pines generally have a forked trunk that gives the medium-sized pine 2 flat masses of foliage. Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, is a species of tree in the pine family Pinaceae that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Fennoscandia. The Scotch pine is a long-lived tree with an expected life-span of 150 to 300 years; the oldest recorded specimen was in Lapland, … Pinus sylvestris L. Description. Plans are currently in progress to restore at least some areas and work has started at key sites.[4][15]. Hardy to -50°F Maximum Elevation: 8,000 Feet The color is a bright green. These trees form … (1959). Like most pines two growing seasons are required to produce mature cones. The cone scales have a flat to pyramidal apophysis (the external part of the cone scale), with a small prickle on the umbo (central boss or protuberance). Consequently, there’s also a great amount of natural variability in terms of density, strength, and appearance because of the wide range of growth conditions for the tree. After the end of the last Ice Age, approximately 10,000 years ago, Scots pine, like other trees, spread northwards again from continental Europe into Britain. It was replaced by large areas of blanket bog in western Scotland and Ireland though the reasons for its decline and extinction in England are not clear, but it may have been influenced by human activities. Only comparatively small areas (17,000 ha (42,000 acres), only just over 1% of the estimated original 1,500,000 ha (3,700,000 acres)[citation needed]) of this ancient forest remain, the main surviving remnants being at Abernethy Forest, Glen Affric, Rothiemurchus Forest, and the Black Wood of Rannoch. Logs from trees of large diameters are processed into veneer and used in manufacturing plywood. 2:48. When established in plantations usually 6 to 8 years are required to produce a 7 to 8 foot tree. Description: An ornamental variation of scotch pine with interesting clumped needle growth; this tree must be kept pruned to maintain the pom pom puff effect but is well worth it for the exotic element it will add to your garden. Scots Pine. In Scandinavian countries, Scots pine was used for making tar in the preindustrial age. A tree to 25–40 m tall and 0.5–1.2 m dbh. Prepared by Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Michigan State University, © 2020 National Christmas Tree Association, Dreaming of a green Christmas: Make your holiday eco-friendly, Green myths debunked: Real trees are better for the environment, Popular products that originated from Christmas. Scots pines are dense trees with dark-green needles. Christmas Tree Species: Scotch Pine MSUChristmasTrees : About Uploaded on Nov 10, 2010. [16] They differ only minimally in morphology, but with more pronounced differences in genetic analysis and resin composition. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m (3,300 ft), while in the south of its range it is a mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 m (3,900–8,500 ft) altitude. There has been some research by university personnel to identify and produce genetically improved planting stock, although these efforts have not been totally successful. [9], Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 35 m in height[12] and 1 m trunk diameter when mature,[13] exceptionally over 45 metres (148 ft) tall and 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) trunk diameter on very productive sites, the tallest on record being a more than 210-year-old tree growing in Estonia which stands at 46.6 m (152 ft 11 in). The Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), an asset to any landscape, only gets better with age. The postglacial history of Scots pine (. (1959, facsimile reprint 1996). As a Christmas tree Scotch pine is known for its excellent needle retention and good keepability. It is notable for its beautiful bluish-green or yellowish-green foliage. Historical and archaeological records indicate that it also occurred in Wales and England until about 300–400 years ago, becoming extinct there due to over-exploitation and grazing; it has been re-introduced in these countries. The bark is a scaly orange-brown, which develops plates and fissures with age. It has an attractive and distinctive look, but it’s not always a good choice for the home landscape in some areas. The Scotch Pine plantations that are left (if there are any, now) are a tight, tangled mess. In the eastern part of its range, it occurs with Siberian pine, among others.[3][4]. 10 years ago, in the Flathead Valley of Montana, there were a lot of Scotch Pines, but they were destined for the Christmas Tree market. 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