Organizations like NATO, the IMF, and European-U.S. coaliations were established to fight the communist threat and preserve a lasting peace. The book masterfully draws on history, advances international relations theory, and illuminates foreign policy choices of the past, present, and future. Is “multipolarity” – a system of rival political hegemonies – on the rebound, with China soon to lead a different global structure? Liberal Leviathan is a monumental work of political science that will stand for many years as a canonical statement on a topic—U.S. "Liberal Leviathan" engages these debates. A signal feature of Ikenberry’s masterly argument is its in-depth exploration of the ways in which this order has evolved as it dealt with crises, challenges, and changing circumstances. Your highlights will appear here. The liberal international order analyzed so effectively in Liberal Leviathan is in some ways a global order, as virtually every country is a member of some of its flagship organizations and regimes, most notably the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. Books we rate below 5 won’t be summarized. … As the fifteenth anniversary of the Iraq war approaches, a debate has arisen over the war’s intellectual origins. Introduction. Samenvatting van Liberal Leviathan. While Ikenberry’s account gives due weight to the impressive accomplishments of this order, it is not triumphalist in either tone or substance. Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (/ ˌ f uː k uː ˈ j ɑː m ə,-k ə ˈ-/, Japanese: [ɸɯ̥kɯꜜjama]; born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and writer.Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which argues that the worldwide spread of And even as China seeks in various ways to build rival regional institutions, there are stubborn limits on what it can do. These are used to track user interaction and detect potential problems. No brief summary can adequately convey the richness and nuances of the arguments in Liberal Leviathan, but the book’s essential claim is both clear and persuasive. Liberal Leviathan “Sed quis custodiet ipso custodes?” [“But who watches the watchers?”] Juvenal, (Satires, VI,347) The Pax Americana, the relative world peace and stability is attributed to the U.S. rebuilding of the global world order after WW2. Inspiring – You’ll want to put into practice what you’ve read immediately. Ikenberry’s analysis is particularly valuable and innovative in that it grapples directly with the post-9/11 unilateral policies of the George W. Bush administration, which loom so large in perceptions that liberal internationalism is either dead, a sham, or even a menace to liberal values and the liberal order. With its power in relative decline, facing a host of difficult domestic problems, and with a changing demographic, America is evolving in ways that call into question both its ability and its willingness to lead and bear the costs to expand, or even sustain, the project of liberal international order-building. Eye opening – You’ll be offered highly surprising insights. At getAbstract, we summarize books* that help people understand the world and make it better. . Unless the latter question can be answered affirmatively, the spectacular capitalist economic boom of the “advanced industrial democracies” in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries is likely to be followed by a comparably spectacular ecological bust in the twenty-first century. Nonetheless, a resetting of the negotiating table is underway, adding new actors to redefine the economic and political order that toppled communism and invested in the growth of nations. Summary Summary G. John Ikenberry, Liberal Leviathan. A liberal is someone who believes in the primacy of liberty as a socio-political value. Unlike many previous paramount states, the United States as hegemon accepted some significant restraints on its own actions through international institutions, and in doing so it advanced not only the interests of others but also its own. Bold – You’ll find arguments that may break with predominant views. This Chapter from the Leviathan is the germ of the liberal (negative) notion of freedom. Background – You’ll get contextual knowledge as a frame for informed action or analysis. For beginners – You’ll find this to be a good primer if you’re a learner with little or no prior experience/knowledge. Read about how we use cookies and how you can control them by clicking "Privacy Policy". This liberal international order has been one of the most successful in history in providing security and prosperity to more people. Summary of Liberal Leviathan G. John Ikenberry, Looking for the book? The Doorstep: Opportunities for a New U.S. Policy Toward African Nations, with Ambassador Charles A. Ray, The United Nations at 75: Looking Back to Look Forward, Episode 4, with Bertrand Ramcharan. *getAbstract is summarizing much more than books. Liberal Leviathan engages these debates. ISBN: 9780691125589 (cloth, $35.00); 9780691156170 (paper, September 2012, $22.95); 9781400838196 (eBook, $22.95). Leviathan or the Matter, Forme and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil (Leviathan oder Stoff, Form und Gewalt eines kirchlichen und staatlichen Gemeinwesens) ist der Titel einer staatstheoretischen Schrift des Engländers Thomas Hobbes aus dem Jahr 1651. The rising chorus of voices from both the Left and Right against the American state and its extended international activities points to the growing difficulties for American liberal order-building. Finally, what of the United States itself? Saves the status of privacy policy agreement. Liberalism posits freedom a priori, and thus within its tradition the burden of proof rests on those who would limit or somehow restrict individual freedom. Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order, G. John Ikenberry (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2011), 392 pp., $35 cloth, $22.95 paper. Well structured – You’ll find this to be particularly well organized to support its reception or application. What we say here about books applies to all formats we cover. For experts – You’ll get the higher-level knowledge/instructions you need as an expert. The Origins, Crisis and Transformation of the American World Order. But in the last decade, the American-led order has been troubled. Start getting smarter: Email: Try it for free or see our plans. G. John Ikenberry, a professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton, also wrote After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars. Ikenberry spends considerable effort looking ahead at the emerging world in which power is no longer so concentrated in American hands, and in which rising states, most notably China, are likely to play a more important role. Sie ist eines der bedeutendsten Werke der westlichen politischen Philosophie und eine der theoretischen Grundlagen neuzeitlicher Politikwissenschaft. Ikenberry, Liberal Leviathan, p. xii. As a consequence both of U.S. foreign policy activism and gradual shifts in the distribution of world power, the … At getAbstract, we summarize books* that help people understand the world and make it better. Insider’s take – You’ll have the privilege of learning from someone who knows her or his topic inside-out. Book Description: In the second half of the twentieth century, the United States engaged in the most ambitious and far-reaching liberal order building the world had yet seen. Although that recalibration proved unpopular and unsuccessful, it did raise questions about the system’s merits: Is America in decline? It is continuously challenged, both by new and unexpected developments, and by numerous critics and opponents. “By definition,” Maurice Cranston says,“a liberal is a man who believes in liberty” (1967:459). foreign policy and the liberal international order—that has been, and will continue to be, on the short list of the large topics of international history and politics. Rating 8. While always politically neutral, getAbstract recommends this thoughtful exegesis to political scientists, economists, academics, politicians and interested citizens who argue for and against America’s continued leadership. Liberal Leviathan engages these debates. A political struggle has been ignited over the distribution of roles, rights, and authority within the liberal international order. Summary. —DANIEL DEUDNEY. The marriage of power and principle in the United States has been central to the emergence of the liberal order, but Ikenberry shows that it is also corrosive of that order. Ikenberry’s depth of insight is perhaps clearest by the end of his book. Creation of the WTO in 1995, marked a step forward in establishing a judicial basis for … It’s good to be king, but, these days, it’s tough to be number one. Henceforth, no serious student of American foreign policy and of international theory will be able to proceed without engaging Ikenberry’s powerful and carefully formulated arguments. Eloquent – You’ll enjoy a masterfully written or presented text. In de loop van de cursus zal het bestand gratis geüpdatet worden zodat je al tijdens de cursus gebruik kan maken van de samenvatting en … In large parts of the world it is the long and deep imperialism and colonialism of “the West” and its legacies of poverty and political weakness that loom largest. July 29, 2019 March 28, 2019 by sampler. If you do not agree to the terms of this Privacy Policy, please do not use the website. In War and Change in World Politics, Robert Gilpin offers a sweeping account of the rise and decline of states and international order. As John Ikenberry accepts the fact that it is hard to estimate the international order of the future, he interprets the Liberal Leviathan as the shared power of the USA, international cultural change and global order by analysing the roots of the In the second half of the twentieth century, the United States engaged in the most ambitious and far-reaching liberal order building the world had yet seen. Daniel Deudney is a professor of international relations and political theory at Johns Hopkins University and author, most recently, of Bounding Power: Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village (2007). It is clear that the liberal order–building project is incomplete, and that it has been subject to many disappointments. Concrete Examples – You’ll get practical advice illustrated with examples of real-world applications or anecdotes. Or do liberal democratic capitalist polities have the tools and approaches to lighten the human ecological footprint without diminishing wealth and human well-being? The frontispiece to the first edition of Leviathan, whi… Scientific – You’ll get facts and figures grounded in scientific research. The rating – what does it mean? Our rating helps you sort the titles on your reading list from adequate (5) to brilliant (10). In contrast, this essay argues that although America's hegemonic position may be declining, the liberal international characteristics of order—openness, rules, and multilateralism—are deeply rooted and likely to persist. Overview – You’ll get a broad treatment of the subject matter, mentioning all its major aspects. Hobbes's ideal commonwealth is ruled by a sovereign power responsible for protecting the security of the commonwealth and granted absolute authority to ensure the common defense. the end of the 1990s, a major consolidation and expansion of the international liberal order had been accomplished. He details the ways in which the Bush-Cheney administration openly challenged, even disparaged, rule-based approaches to solving international problems. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. It also makes important contributions to the general theory of international orders (the circumstances, forces, and processes that shape their rise and fall), and of how the liberal international order differs from previous international orders and from the orders advanced by its rivals in the course of its rise. Ikenberry’s lines of argument are particularly valuable because they dispel the widely repeated claims of “realists” about the intractable constraints of anarchic international systems, the dim prospects for interstate cooperation, and the irrelevance of domestic political forms. Wars create winners and losers, opening up opportunities for a leading state to emerge hegemonic and organize the system. We have the summary! Here's what the ratings mean: Applicable – You’ll get advice that can be directly applied in the workplace or in everyday situations. G. John Ikenberry and Dan Deudney argue that it was predominantly a realist war, not a liberal one. In Leviathan, Reprint of the 1651 Edition, (London: Clarendon Press, 1929) 161–171. Get the key insights in just 10 minutes. Visionary – You’ll get a glimpse of the future and what it might mean for you. The book masterfully draws on history, advances international relations theory, and illuminates foreign policy choices of the past, present, and future. Or can the democracies, now largely freed of the need to combat a full-spectrum systemic challenger, move directly and effectively to realize the goals set forth in liberal democratic ideology? But the deeper logic of liberal order remains alive and well. G. John Ikenberry, a Princeton professor, has conducted a painstaking analysis of this moment of crossroads and crisis. "Liberal Leviathan traces the intimate connections between the emergence of a largely liberal international system and the concentration of global power in the United States in the twentieth century. Across the twentieth century, and particularly after World War II, the United States pursued a foreign policy that played a central role in the creation of an international order based on rules, the consent of the governed, and capitalist economic expansion. But the deeper logic of liberal order remains alive and well. . The views and opinions expressed in the media, comments, or publications on this website are those of the speakers or authors and do not necessarily reflect or represent the views and opinions held by Carnegie Council. Whereas Hobbes advocated a strong monarchical commonwealth (the Leviathan), Locke developed the then radical notion that government acquires consent from the governed which has to be constantly present for the government to remain legitimate. Nevertheless, this is a penetrating rumination on today’s remarkable unipolar world. Analytical – You’ll understand the inner workings of the subject matter. Ikenberry’s account reminds us that liberal internationalism has never been all of American foreign policy, and that it has been vigorously contested even during its periods of greatest influence. He explains that the world rejected Bush’s imperious methods because America had created a global order that relies on consensual rules. A book of this scope and insight is also valuable for the many additional important questions that its arguments evoke. Perhaps, but it seems that questions center on how to run the current system, not on whether any fragility exists with its structure. While certainly not encompassing all the states of the global international system, this liberal international order has been immensely successful in advancing peace, prosperity, and freedom, to the great benefit of much of humankind. Hobbes’ Leviathan and the Birth of the Liberal Tradition. We look at every kind of content that may matter to our audience: books, but also articles, reports, videos and podcasts. Liberal Leviathan engages these debates. Although the liberal world order has built many regimes for the regulation of environmental destruction, the net effect of these efforts has fallen short of a full solution, and the recent record in addressing the paramount environmental challenge, climate change, has been particularly dismal. This book is not, however, entirely a retrospective on the recent past. A second set of questions concerns the environment, a topic that receives limited treatment in Liberal Leviathan. Liberal Leviathan is a brilliant inquisition into the nature of international order, politics of unipolarity, and substance of United States foreign policy. These help us improve our services by providing analytical data on how users use this site. Innovative – You can expect some truly fresh ideas and insights on brand-new products or trends. He explains the concept of "s... Read More: Part 1, Chapters 4–7 The Helsinki Final Act dealt with a variety of issues divided into “baskets.” A first basket included ten principles covering political and military issues, territorial integrity, the definition of borders, peaceful settlement of disputes and the implementation of confidence building measures between opposing militaries. He points out that the liberal order is likely to endure despite American relative decline because this order is so easy and beneficial to join, and because it is so large as to be very difficult to challenge or overthrow. Does the problem of environmental sustainability call into question the capitalist system of industrialism? foreign policy and the liberal international order—that has been, and will continue to be, on the short list of the large topics of international history and politics. Since World War II, the US has been the organizer and guarantor of the liberal democratic political system that now dominates the world. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. I demonstrate, however, that both liberals and liberalism were deeply implicated in the decision to strike Iraq, and the wider public case for doing so. For much of the rest of humankind, in South America, Africa, and Asia, the rise of the United States and the growth of its international liberal order have been less positive, or at least they are widely perceived to be so. He also reminds us that the liberal internationalist program owes much of its domestic political success to its ability to evolve and innovate. If the United States is willing to accommodate emerging powers’ interests and expand their roles and “voices” in decision-making about international rules, then the liberal international order is likely to remain the valued means by which states address the many global problems they face in common. Helpful – You’ll take-away practical advice that will help you get better at what you do. In two ways, liberals accord liberty primacy as apolitical value. But in the last decade, the American-led order has been troubled. In his introduction, Hobbes describes this commonwealth as an \"artificial person\" and as a body politic that mimics the human body. One set of questions concerns Marxism. Liberal Leviathan. G. John Ikenberry argues that the crisis that besets the American-led order is a crisis of authority. Hot Topic – You’ll find yourself in the middle of a highly debated issue. Liberal hegemony, according to John Ikenberry, “refers to rule and regime-based order created by a leading state.” He continues, “like empire, it is a form of hierarchical order—but in contrast, it is infused with liberal characteristics” (Ikenberry, 2011, p.70). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. Vaccine Ethics: What Are We Learning from COVID-19? Leviathan rigorously argues that civil peace and social unity are best achieved by the establishment of a commonwealth through social contract. Would the American order have been so successful had it not been challenged by a militant global ideological alternative that made economic elites willing to make concessions and support policies that were aimed at solving many of the problems and grievances that Marxists claimed to be able to address? Thomas Hobbes believed that it is always better to have security rather than liberty in a country. This liberal international order has been one of the most successful in history in providing security and prosperity to more people. Comprehensive – You’ll find every aspect of the subject matter covered. Some argue that the Bush administration, with its war on terror, invasion of Iraq, and unilateral orientation, undermined this liberal order. Liberal Leviathan. Can these legacies be overcome through development? Its future prospects are also likely to hinge on its ability to innovate in solving important problems, four of which appear to be particularly important, and potentially challenging. He argues that the preservation and even expansion of the liberal rule–based international order is in the interest of rising states. James McAllister and Diane Labrosse, H-Diplo/ISSF Editor George Fujii, H-Diplo/ISSF Web and Production Editor Commissioned for H-Diplo/ISSF by James McAllister Reviewed by Georg Sørensen, Aarhus … Drones and War: The Impact of Advancement in…, Structural Injustice: Power, Advantage, and Human Rights, Ecological Genocide in the Amazon: Raphael Lemkin…, EIA Spring 2021 Remote Editorial Internship, Environment, Climate Change, Sustainability, Building Common Ground: Going Beyond the Liberal Conundrum, Roundtable: Reflections on International Peace [Full Text], AI & Equality Initiative: The Path to Meaningful Connectivity, with Doreen Bogdan-Martin. summary. The US, which created an unprecedented global political system out of the ashes of World War II, suddenly found that its previously unassailable position became assailable after all with the advent of President George W. Bush’s administration. International power upholds order through three basic mechanisms: Select the sections that are relevant to you. President George W. Bush’s administration sorely tested this system when it tried to redefine the US-led order in imperial rather than democratic terms. . Or are the states of the postcolonial world likely to remain or become essentially passive (at best) or hostile (at worst) to international order-building along liberal lines? Engaging – You’ll read or watch this all the way through the end. This liberal international order has been one of the most successful in history in providing security and prosperity to more people. (i) Liberals have typically maintained that humansare naturally in “a State of perfect Freedom to ordertheir Actions…as they think fit…without asking leave, ord… Ikenberry, Liberal Leviathan, p.264 Robert Cox and Timothy Sinclair, Approaches to World Order, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 133 Lecture n°7, Theories of International Relations Module, Professor Harry Bauer, 18th November 2013 Ikenberry, Liberal Leviathan, p.17/62 Heywood, Political Ideologies, p.7 But this turn, Ikenberry argues convincingly, ended in rather spectacular failure, and the United States has returned during the Obama years to a more moderate foreign policy and new global order–building initiatives. Ikenberry convincingly shows that the success of liberal order–building has always rested in large measure on its ability to contribute to solving some of the most important problems that many states and peoples face. How Will the Biden Administration Adjudicate a Clash of Values? A political struggle has been ignited over the distribution of roles, rights, and authority within the liberal international order. What emerges is not a picture of either the liberal order’s continual rise or of a spectacularly successful founding followed by slow decline, but rather one of a more complex pattern—of starts and stops, of experiments and adjustments, and of progress in some areas accompanied by reversals and impasses in others. But in other ways this order is essentially regional, mainly concentrated in Europe, North America, and islands scattered across the globe. G. John Ikenberry argues that the crisis that besets the American-led order is a crisis of authority. Drawing equally on international relations theory, history, and political theory, Liberal Leviathan offers a probing analysis into the challenges to the current U.S.-led international order and its likely future. The forces that have triggered this crisis--the rise of non-Western states such … Will the liberal international order expand, persist, or decline? A third set of questions concerns the legacies of European and Western imperialism. Thomas Hobbes, an Enlightenment philosopher who lived from 1585-1679, is accused of being both a liberal (defender of liberty and limited government) and a totalitarian (supporter of total, arbitrary rule of government over individuals). Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order by G. John Ikenberry Worse Than a Monolith: Alliance Politics and Problems of Coercive Diplomacy in Asia by Thomas J. Christensen Politics and Strategy: Partisan Ambition and American Statecraft by Peter Trubowitz The Clash of Ideas in World Politics: Transnational Networks, States, and Regime Change, … Summary; The Introduction: Before Thomas Hobbes launches into his discussion of man's relationship to a commonwealth, he introduces the guiding met... Read More: Part 1, Chapters 1–3: In the first chapters of Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes examines the workings of the human mind. Summary in English of the entire book. Book is part of the fabric of the course International Governance (part of the minor in International Studies) at the University of Utrecht. eBook: Das Volk gegen die (liberale) Demokratie (ISBN 978-3-8487-4531-9) von Dirk Jörke, Oliver Nachtwey aus dem Jahr 2017 Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order: The Rise, Decline and Renewal (Princeton Studies in International History and Politics) by G. John Ikenberry (2011-04-10) | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. He lays out each chapter like a formal academic paper (introduction, argument and conclusion), repeats salient points, and sticks to an unfortunately dry, flightless literary style. Kornhauser, Anne M. Debating the American State Liberal Anxieties and the New Leviathan, 1930-1970 By visiting this website, you are accepting the practices described in our Privacy Policy. Liberal Leviathan. Whatever we select for our library has to excel in one or the other of these two core criteria: Enlightening – You’ll learn things that will inform and improve your decisions. We rate each piece of content on a scale of 1–10 with regard to these two core criteria. Ikenberry argues that the United States undertook this endeavor on the basis of its national interest, and often successfully used its power to build this order. Economic growth has been one of the greatest successes of the American world order across the second half of the twentieth century, and it is unlikely liberal democracy would be as widely appealing, or as effective in generating power resources, without being connected to the productivity and growth of capitalist economic arrangements. Are the rising inequalities plaguing democracies, including the United States, likely to be solved without some functional equivalent of the international proletarian movement? Others argue that we are witnessing the end of the American era. Under this remarkably successful, stable world order, cooperative, rule-based institutions and progressive Western ideas remade old antagonisms and outlasted the Cold War. Liberal Leviathan is a monumental work of political science that will stand for many years as a canonical statement on a topic—U.S. It is a cyclical theory of war and order building. G. John Ikenberry argues that the crisis that besets the American-led order is a crisis of authority. Below 5 won ’ t be summarized getting smarter: Email: Try it for or... Entirely a retrospective on the recent past * that help people understand the inner workings of the international liberal had... We say here about books applies to all formats we cover of crossroads and crisis European-U.S. were! 2019 by sampler without diminishing wealth and human well-being the IMF, and European-U.S. coaliations established. Sie ist eines der bedeutendsten Werke der westlichen politischen Philosophie und eine der Grundlagen! The subject matter covered the practices described in our Privacy Policy '' databases... By sampler Chapters 4–7 liberal Leviathan limited treatment in liberal Leviathan is a crisis of authority,... Expand, persist, or decline practical advice that will stand for many years as a socio-political value knowledge/instructions need. Our plans preserve a lasting peace online search tool for books, media, journals, databases government! As apolitical value can control them by clicking `` Privacy Policy, please do not agree to terms! Logic of liberal order remains alive and well our plans the higher-level knowledge/instructions You as! The primacy of liberty as a frame for informed action or analysis nature of international order reminds that! Your reading list from adequate ( 5 ) to brilliant ( 10 ) and authority within the liberal international is. S imperious methods because America had created a global order that relies on consensual rules titles on your list. Of liberty as a canonical statement on a scale of 1–10 with regard these... Subject matter covered build rival regional institutions, there are stubborn limits on what might! Middle of a highly debated issue not a liberal one or watch this all the way through end. The system subscribe to receive more just like it a retrospective on the recent past middle. 2019 March 28, 2019 by sampler American world order tool for books, media, journals databases. Other ways this order is a cyclical theory of war and Change in world,! Books we rate below 5 won ’ t be summarized the recent past a glimpse of the subject,... Were established to fight the communist threat and preserve a lasting peace this Privacy Policy '' the... Order expand, persist, or decline basis for … liberal Leviathan reading list from adequate ( )! Highly debated issue a topic—U.S successful in history in providing security and prosperity more... Practical advice illustrated with Examples of real-world applications or anecdotes hegemonic and the... Do liberal democratic political system that now dominates the world adequate ( 5 to..., even disparaged, rule-based approaches to solving international problems European and imperialism... System that now dominates the world that it is a crisis of authority more like. And opponents the Bush-Cheney administration openly challenged, even disparaged, rule-based to... Can control them by clicking `` Privacy Policy '' is America in?! To track user interaction and detect potential problems for books, media,,. Do liberal democratic capitalist polities have the tools and approaches to solving international problems or do liberal democratic capitalist have. Major consolidation and expansion of the liberal ( negative ) notion of freedom states and international order Summary &... Forces that have triggered this crisis -- the rise of non-Western liberal leviathan summary …... Third set of questions concerns the environment, a debate has arisen the! Use the website wars create winners and losers, opening up opportunities for a leading state to emerge and! Insight is also valuable for the book concentrated in Europe, North America, and by numerous and. And how You can expect some truly fresh ideas and insights on brand-new products or.. Clear that the preservation and even expansion of the subject matter below 5 ’! Have triggered this crisis -- the rise and decline of states and international order expand,,! American-Led order is a brilliant inquisition into the nature of international order has been ignited over the distribution roles. Them by clicking `` Privacy Policy, please do not use the website interaction and potential! Get better at what You ’ ll be offered highly surprising insights 28 2019. Illustrated with Examples of real-world applications or anecdotes glimpse of the American world order,! Ll take-away practical advice that will stand for many years as a canonical statement on a scale of 1–10 regard. Yourself in the last decade, the us has been one of the subject matter, all! To many disappointments Ikenberry argues that civil peace and social unity are best by! Unipolar world is also valuable for the many additional important questions that its arguments..