A few years later, he reported the discovery of the Book of Mormon, which he said was a lost section of the Bible. With a small following, he organized the Church of Christ later that year, the progenitor of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints popularly known as “Mormons.” He presented himself as a prophet and aimed to recapture what he viewed as the purity of the primitive Christian church—purity he believed had been lost over the centuries. At the beginning of the Second Great Awakening, preachers brought their message to the people with great fanfare and excitement in the form of a traveling revival. Besides producing many mainline Protestant converts, especially in nonconformist sects, the area spawned a number of innovative religious movements, all founded by laypeople during the early nineteenth century. Joseph Smith, Jr.: Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, which gave rise to Mormonism. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. Charles Grandison Finney, evangelist preacher: During the Second Great Awakening, progressively minded western evangelists, led by Charles Finney, challenged the establishment’s restrictions on women’s participation in the church. The main one being the Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening was a 19th century Christian revivalist movement which was characterized by enthusiastic preachers gathering huge camp meetings to persuade and rejuvenate people’s faith in religion. Second Great Awakening: The Second Great Awakening was a revival movement during the early to mid-nineteenth century. The revivals first stirred during the 1790s, but two major events after the turn of the century are often given as the starting point for the Second Great Awakening. While religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening highlighted the important role which individual beliefs would play. After leaving Missouri, Smith built the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, near which he was assassinated in 1844. What was the Second Great Awakening?The Second Great Awakening was prompted by falling interest in religion when people were excited about the innovations of the Industrial Revolution and the rapid expansion of U.S. territories, particularly in the west. Second Great Awakening. Utah is the center of Mormon cultural influence, and North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States. Summarize the early history of the Mormon Church. He soon founded his own church and began converting people to his faith. The Second Great Awakening began to decline by 1870. Despite the influential part they played in the Second Great Awakening, these women still largely acted within their “status quo” roles as mothers and wives. Thousands would meet in camp meetings, and many times the event turned quite chaotic with impromptu singing or shouting, individuals speaking in tongues, and dancing in the aisles. Settlers in thinly populated areas would gather at the camp meeting for fellowship. History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The reform efforts of the antebellum era sprang from the Protestant revival fervor that found expression in what historians refer to as the Second Great Awakening. Answer: The First Great Awakening (c. 1735-1743) and the Second Great Awakening (c.1795-1830) were theologically significant in that they helped to shape Christian thinking by the intense revivalism they created. What is the main idea behind the Great Awakening? Political reforms were also spurred by the 2 nd Great Awakening and the resulting Progressive Movement. Q: What were the goals of the leaders of the Great Awakening? Mormonism was founded and led to the faith's settlement in Salt Lake City, Utah. Women constituted the majority of converts and participants in the Second Great Awakening and played an important informal role in religious revivals. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier. Difficulties with anti-Mormons led him and his followers to move to Kirtland, Ohio, in 1831. the three main points and/or ideas spread were: ... And the top three in the second division are promoted. Th great awakening affected the colonies in a few ways. 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Because they were churches that embraced the message of the Second Great Awakening What was the message of the Second Great Awakening? The Restoration Movement, which came out of an early camp meeting, focused on a fundamentalist interpretation of the New Testament and the establishment of a personal relationship with God. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. The driving force was the personal piety over theology and schooling. Methodist camp meeting: Camp meetings were multi-day affairs with multiple preachers, often attracting thousands of worshippers. Though they typically held no formal leadership roles, women became very important informally in the process of conversion and in the religious upbringing of their children through family structure and through their maternal roles. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. The post-revival phase has to be considered if we are to understand the Second Great Awakening as a whole. Camp meetings on the frontier attracted tens of thousands of worshippers who gathered for several days in large tents and listened to several different preachers in rotation. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement in the first half of the 19th century. The Great Awakening was a series of reintroductions or revivals that had an impact on the English Colonies in North America during the 1730s and 1740s. It gave them people agency in their own religious lives that Calvinism had denied them. Their purpose was to convince people that religious power … Other significant early modern Christian Universalist leaders included Elhanan Winchester, a Baptist preacher who wrote several books promoting the universal salvation of all souls after a period in purgatory and founded a church that ministered to African-American slaves in South Carolina; Hosea Ballou, a Universalist preacher in New England; and Hannah Whitall Smith, a writer and evangelist from a Quaker background who was active in the women’s suffrage and temperance movements. They rejected what appeared to be sterile, formal modes of worship in favor of a vigorous emotional religiosity. An introduction to the Second Great Awakening - the first in my video series on Antebellum Reform Movements Buckminster’s close associate William Ellery Channing became the leader of the Unitarian movement. They were quite successful and by the 1840s the Methodists were the largest Protestant group in America. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. The “Burned-Over District” refers to the religious scene in early nineteenth-century western and central New York, where religious revivals and Pentecostal movements of the Second Great Awakening took place. Historians believe ideas set forth during the religious movement known as the Second Great Awakening inspired abolitionists to rise up against slavery. Developing an American colonial identity. No longer were individuals converting alone. Summarize the central commitments and effects of the Second Great Awakening. The second great awakening focused on encouraging Christians to turn away from sinful pasts, acknowledging their unworthiness before God and accepting salvation in Christ. People needed to take a active piety with a belief in God as an active force who grace could be attained through faith and good works The preaching emphasized personal sins and salvation through Christ. Main content. Smith emphasized the importance of families being ruled by fathers. (The First Great Awakening of evangelical Protestantism had taken place in the 1730s and 1740s.) Smith presented himself as a prophet and aimed to recapture what he viewed as the purity of the primitive Christian church that had been lost over the centuries. They moved to Missouri, but trouble soon developed there as well, as citizens reacted against the Mormons’ beliefs. From 1725 to 1825, Unitarianism gained ground in New England and other areas. In the spring of 1847, Young led the vanguard company to the Salt Lake Valley, which was then outside the boundaries of the United States and which later became Utah. Historians studying the Second Great Awakening in the upper south and the frontier should not exclusively treat mechanisms of revival like camp meetings, or circuit riders, but remember that revivals were pipelines into regular church membership. Both religions believed in free will with personal redemption. Politics and native relations in the New England colonies. The Second Great Awakening took place in the new United States between 1790 and 1840. An Awakening of Religion and Individualism. The new middle class—an outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution—embraced Finney’s message. Soon persecuted for their beliefs, the group left New York moving first to Ohio, then Missouri, and finally Nauvoo, Illinois, where they lived for five years. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky, and Cane Ridge was instrumental in fostering what became known as the “Restoration Movement,” which was made up of nondenominational churches committed to what they saw as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. Countless people were converted and many churches were changed and revived. The Second Great Awakening is … Rather, it was something that happened to people and by people, who may or may not have been led by God. While there is no single reason women joined the revival movement, the revival provided many women with shared experiences. Discuss the central commitments and development of Unitarianism and Universalism in the United States. At the time, Rochester was a boomtown because the Erie Canal had brought a lively shipping business. They were an integral part of the frontier expansion of the Second Great Awakening. Second Great Awakening>> Democracy>> Egalitarian way of thinking In the South: Slaves (although segregated) went to same churches as their owners!! Mormons also follow strict laws of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside of marriage and strict fidelity within marriage. Much like the previous awakening, there was a religious revival many of the following previous protestant ideals. The term was coined in 1876 by Charles Grandison Finney, who argued that the area had been so heavily evangelized as to have no “fuel” (unconverted population) left over to “burn” (convert). The Baptists and Methodists often worked together in these revivals. Reforms took the shape of social movements for temperance, women’s rights, and the abolition of slavery. The Second Great Awakening was a diverse bundle of revivals affecting a broad swathe of American religious, political, and public life. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The rise of evangelical influence in local, state, and national politics would influence all three branches of government, as legislative agendas now had to concede to the voting power of a religious block. The Great Awakening was sparked by the tour of an English evangelical minister named George Whitefield. Unitarianism and Universalism were early Christian denominations that spread quickly during the nineteenth century. In the East: Thought the Christian message (Second Great Awakening) was a promise of freedom Antebellum reform in areas such as women’s rights was affected not only by political enthusiasm, but also by religious or spiritual enthusiasm. The thousands swept up in the movement believed in the possibility of creating a much better world. Martin Kelly, M.A., is a history teacher and curriculum developer. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. During the 1800s, Mormon converts tended to gather to a central geographic location. For many, "the Second Great Awakening" is one of those historical terms from a dusty textbook that sounds vaguely familiar, but the details are fuzzy at best. William Miller and his followers, called Millerites, believed that the Second Coming would occur on October 22, 1844. Some Mormons are also either independent or non-practicing. Specifically, Methodists and Baptists began an effort to democratize religion. The Burned-over District Reconsidered: A Portent of Evolving Religious Pluralism in the United States. "Black Harry" Hosier (1750–1906), the first African-American Methodist preacher and a fabled orator despite being illiterate, was a crossover success in both black and white revivals. It enrolled millions of new members and led to the formation of new denominations. Exuberant revivalist meetings ignited the interest in religion. The ideas of social equality that came about with the advent of the new nation trickled down to religion, and the movement to be known as the Second Great Awakening began about 1790. Mormons self-identify as Christian, though some of their beliefs differ from mainstream Christianity. The term was coined in 1876 by Charles Grandison Finney, who argued that the area had been so heavily evangelized as to have no “fuel” (unconverted population) left over to “burn” (convert). Charles Grandison Finney (August 29, 1792–August 16, 1875) was a leader in the Second Great Awakening and has been called “The Father of Modern Revivalism.” Finney was an innovative revivalist, an opponent of Old School Presbyterian theology, an advocate of Christian Perfectionism, a pioneer in social reforms in favor of women and African Americans, a religious writer, and president at Oberlin College. Mormonism is the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint religious and cultural movement. [ At the start of the Second Great Awakening, the largest religions were: Congregationalists (the 18th-century descendants of Puritan churches), Anglicans (known after the Revolution as Episcopalians), and Quakers. Lesson summary: New England and Middle colonies. American religious leaders such as Joseph Smith, Jr., William Miller, and the Fox sisters all came from the district; the Shakers were established in the area as well. The period of American Unitarianism from about 1800 to 1835 can be thought of as formative, mainly influenced by English philosophy, semi-supernatural, imperfectly rationalistic, and devoted to philanthropy and practical Christianity. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival, with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people, inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. During the antebellum period, the Second Great Awakening inspired advocacy for a number of reform topics, including women’s rights. This reform movement established the first system of free public schools for children of all social classes. Puritan New England: Massachusetts Bay. Women played a major role in reforms, mainly because they saw it as an opportunity to leave home and help in public affairs. His vision of a reinvigorated patriarchy resonated with men and women who had not thrived during the market revolution, and his claims attracted those who hoped for a better future. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. The first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation was by King’s Chapel in Boston, which revised the prayer book into a mild Unitarian liturgy in 1785. These revivals were social events where faith was renewed. Mormons believe in the Bible, as well as other books of scripture, such as the Book of Mormon. In many areas, particularly the south, blacks held separate revivals at the same time with the two groups joining together on the last day. Lorenzo Dow, American itinerant preacher: The Second Great Awakening included large revivals, which were passionate meetings led by evangelist preachers such as the eccentric Lorenzo Dow. Click to read the fact file detailing the Second Great Awakening or download our entire worksheet bundle. The movement began around 1790 and gained momentum by 1800; after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. Several scholarly theories attribute the large number of conversions in part to women’s assumption of greater religiosity. ", The Great Awakening of the Early 18th Century, 1864 Sand Creek Massacre: History and Impact, African American History Timeline: 1700 - 1799, Biography of Ralph Waldo Emerson, American Essayist, Black American Firsts of the 18th Century, The Founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, The Most Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution. Rev. It fit perfectly with their understanding of themselves as people shaping their own destiny. The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation. The “Burned-Over District” of upstate New York was a region that proved especially susceptible to the religious revivals of the early and mid-nineteenth century. Women were seen as the moral center of the household. People did not have the time or the inclination for worship. The belief that God speaks to his children and answers their prayers is central to Mormon faith. Out of ambition to be God's man on earth, many started to acknowledge the fact that maybe they needed to start at something bigger than themselves, at something about the size of America. Women usually acted in their “status quo” duties, teaching the virtues of motherhood and domesticity. During this time also, there was the reject of the doctrine of predestination as taught by Calvin over the course of the first awakening. As early as the middle of the eighteenth century, a number of clergymen in New England preached what was essentially Unitarianism. Miller is credited with beginning the religious movement now known as “Adventism,” and several major religious denominations are his direct spiritual heirs, such as Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians. In 1830, Smith published The Book of Mormon and organized the Church of Christ in upstate New York. 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